The .NET Framework is a platform created by Microsoft for Software developing.It has lot of versions,new released version is 4.6 (April-2016).
Microsoft Definition: A programming infrastructure created by Microsoft for building, deploying, and running applications and services that use .NET technologies, such as desktop applications and Web services.
- It is Platform for software Developers.
- It supports many programming languages ( Ex. Vb.net , C#.net ,Asp.net).
- It supports cross platform developments (Ex.IOS,Android).
- It has Integrated Development Environment (IDE) (Ex.Microsoft Visual Studio).
- .NET Framework also includes the .NET Common Language Run-time (CLR), which is responsible for maintaining the execution of all applications developed using the .NET library.
Common Language Run-time (CLR) is the most important part of the .net framework,simply it converts your source code (c#,VB.net) to native language (Machine Language).so then source code supports with operating system.
Components of the CLR.
1. Class Loader : Is an abstract class. Its purpose is to tell CLR in what manner a class is to be loaded at runtime.
2. MSIL : Microsoft Intermediate Language is considered to be the lowest form of human readable language. It is CPU independent and includes instructions of how to load, store, initialize objects. JIT converts this MSIL into native code which is dependent on the CPU.
3. Code Manager : Is responsible for managing code at run-time.
4. Garbage Collector : The .NET garbage collector enables high-speed allocation and release of memory for the objects in managed code. Its main aim is proper memory management and optimizing the memory.
5. Security Engine : It ensures all the security restrictions.
6. Type Checker : It enforces the constraints of types. It enforces strictness in type checking.
7. Thread Support : It allows multi-threading.
8. Debug engine : It allows proper debugging of an application.
9. Base class library : It provides all the types that an application need at runtime.
10. Exception manager : Handles all the exception for an application during runtime.
11. COM Marshaller : It provides an option for interoperability for an application.
Steps of Source code compiling
Step 1- Application code is written using a .NET – compatible language C#.
Step 2 – Code is compiled into MSIL, which is stored in an assembly (see Figure 1 – 2).
Step 3 – When this code is executed (either in its own right if it is an executable or when it is used from other code), it must first be compiled into native code using a JIT compiler.
Step 4 – The native code is executed in the context of the managed CLR, along with any other running applications or processes.
Hope you Learned some thing , this is very simple description,refer MSDN to more in detail about .net framework,